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Libya: Land and life

The history of Libya is as old as creation. Shinning civilization has matured on the exotic land for thousands of years and reacted in a melting pot through different ages, always expressing the noble origin of the people. Archeological excavations, Greeks, Romans and Vandals. Germanthics civilization was one of the oldest known civilizations in the Libyan land. ‘Germa,’ the prospering city, the remains of which remind us about the antiquity of the civilization. Herodot, the Greek historian, writes about the Germanthics practicing agriculture with a kind of bull which walked backwards when it was pastured because it had bent horns to the front which prevented it from being pastured.

Islamic triumph in 622 AD heralded a message from the heavens and it was settled for the people of the country from one end to the other professed Islam. Since then its history has been connected with the Islamic empire. Rolling down the ages, the country finally became a part of the Great Ottoman empire that ruled for over five centuries. The decline of the mighty empire invited the European colonial powers to share its booty. It started with Italy which ruled the land from 1911 till the end of the Second World War. The defeat of Italy exposed Libya to the offensive colonial conspiracies. This time the invaders were Britain, France and America. They set up colonial bases in every part of Libya under the shade of monarchy which was chained by secret agreements and private negotiations with these powers.

At long last the despotic rule was replaced by ‘Al Fateh’ revolution of the 1st September 1969, when the people rose up on the sounds of liberty bells striking, announcing the birth of a nation - Libyan Arab Republic. Later, with the establishment of the Authority of the People the country was renamed as ‘Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.’

The land
The Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiria is located in the north of the African continent To the east Egypt and Sudan are located, to the west is Tunisia and Algeria. Chad and Niger are on the south. The area of the Jamahiriya is 1,777,500 square kilometres. The climate represents a mixture of sea and desert climates where the effect of the sea decreases as we travel down towards south till we reach the desert climate in the areas which are located more than one hundred kilometres from the sea. The disparity in climate is considered to be one of the main elements controlling the flora, environmental features, the differences of plants and animal distribution, soil formation and means of life.

People’s authority
Following the great revolution of September 1, 1969, the Libyan people took back their self control and owned their present and future fate, proclaiming their announcement to indicate the people’s authority and the beginning of the Jamahiriya era, under the guidance of the revolutionary thinker and leader, Colonel Muammar Gaddafi on the following bases:
First: Libya is a people’s land: ‘The Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.’
Second: The holy Qur’an is the society canon in the Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
Third: Direct people’s authority is the base of the political system in the Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
Four: The defence of the home land is the responsibility of each citizen, and people’s training and militarization has to be done through general military as per rules which are organized by the law.
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