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Concept of God
By Maulana Wahiduddin Khan

In 1965 in Lucknow I met a university Professor who had done his doctorate in Philosophy. He had turned an atheist. The subject of our conversation was the existence of God.
During this conversation he remarked: "What criterion you have to prove the existence of God" I replied that I had a valid criterion and this criterion was exactly the same as is employed in science to prove any natural fact. Bertrand Russell has aptly said there are two kinds of knowledge: knowledge of things, knowledge of truths. So far as the "things" are concerned it is possible to apply direct argument to them. But inferential arguments alone can be applied to prove "truths," as it is related to the law of nature. The validity of inferential arguments is held valid in science, that is to admit the existence of some "reality" on the basis of the existence of things.

On the basis of this reality Bertrand Russell has acknowledged that the "argument from design" brought forward by the Religious people is a valid argument, according to science. The argument from design is to prove the existence of a designer from the existence of design.
By the first half of the twentieth century people used to debate over the existence of God. But by the end of the twentieth century this is no longer considered a debatable topic. Now in academic circles the existence of God is held to be a fact. Particularly after the Big Bang theory this matter has been almost settled.

Now we are right, scientifically, in saying that the choice for us is not between universe with God and universe without God, Rather the real choice is between universe with God or no universe at all. Since from scientific viewpoint we are not in a position to take a choice of no universe at all, we are compelled to take the choice of the universe with God.
As regards the scientific evidence on the existence of God perhaps the first notable account was that prepared by Sir James Jeans titled The Mysterious Universe, published in 1930. Afterwards many important books have come out on this topic. These books have described how all the fields of the science of the universe point to the existence of God. Here I would like to refer to a very valuable book on this subject. This book consists of forty articles written by qualified western scientists. It is titled The Evidence of God in an Expanding Universe, and is edited by John Clover Monsma.

The truth is that revealed knowledge and scientific knowledge both equally prove that there is a God of this universe. And that God is only one Not believing in God is as illogical as believing in many gods. In this present world man is given freedom for the purpose of being tested. Everyone is free to say what he wants to and to believe in anything of his own free will. But so far as reason is concerned the concept of one God is the only rational concept Everything else is irrational. No valid argument exists in its favour.

Once a group of young men in an Indian town were discussing on the subject whether God existed or not. Even after a long discussion the matter could not be settled. Finally, they agreed to refer the matter to a certain pious Muslim scholar of the same town. On invitation, that scholar came to the place. He stood among the youth and simply recited this verse from the Qur'an: "Is there any doubt about God, the Creator of the heavens and the earth?" (14:10)

The result was miraculous. The youths were left speechless. They found this argument from the Qur'an so convincing that they needed no further arguments to believe in God. Why it happened that the assertion alone was sufficient to bring them to belief. It is because God is self-subsisting. He needs no proofs for His existence. The reason for God being self evident is twofold. One, the existence of the universe itself is a proof of the existence of God. Secondly man believes in God because he is bound to believe in God. Man's existence in itself is a proof of God's existence. His inner nature speaks for God. Hence, most often, a simple assertion about the existence of God suffices for a man with unbiased mentality to believe in God Keeping one's nature intact, one cannot afford to deny God, as it is tantamount to the denial of one's own nature. At the same time, in the external world man sees clear evidences of God in nature all around him day in and day out. God is so evident that the denial of God becomes an artificial situation. That is why those who apparently deny God, they too come to believe in God, when confronted with utter helplessness. (31:32;10:22)

One concept of God is that which has been handed over to man by the Prophet. This is the concept of pure monotheism, that is "There is no god but one God." This Prophetic concept has been briefly described in a short chapter of the Qur'an:
Say: He is God, the One God. The Eternal, Absolute.
He begets not. Nor is He begotten. And there is none like unto Him (Chapter 112)

However, in every age all sorts of concepts have been prevalent among the people. These different concepts may be divided into two categories.

One God Versus Many gods Personal God Versus impersonal God There are again several kinds of concepts about God. Some believe in two gods, one of good and the other of evil. Some believe in three gods as in the form of trinity, believed by Christians. There are others who believe in multitudes of gods as in Hinduism.

Now the question arises as to which of these concepts should be held right and which to be held wrong. The Qur'an gives us a clear criterion in this regard. According to the Qur'an there are only two forms of credible knowledge, that is, revealed knowledge and scientific knowledge (46:4)
Let us first take revealed knowledge. What is being proved by revealed knowledge? When we survey revealed scriptures from this respect, the first question that arises is that which one of these revealed scriptures is to be regarded as authentic. Apparently, in the world of today there are many religious books whose adherents claim for them to be revealed scriptures. But when these books are judged on the criterion of history, we find that none of these books prove their credibility on purely historical standard. We have no way of knowing from the respect of history precisely when and how these books came into existence, what was their original language, how were they preserved after the First Giver, how they reached the later generations of its followers-all these questions remain unanswered. These books are thus believed by their adherents to be their scriptures without having any historical proof.

In this non-historical museum of revealed scriptures, Qur'an is the only scripture which comes up to the standard of history in every respect. The Qur'an has all sort of historical credibility and authenticity that makes one believe in it with full confidence.

This means that if a person wants to know the concept of God according to the revealed knowledge, then, he can only trust the Qur'an to be the authentic source. It is a fact that, according to the revealed knowledge, the Qur'an is the only existing book which provides a reliable source of knowing the true concept of God.

When we refer to the Qur'an for the same we find that there is only one true concept of God according to revealed knowledge and that is pure monotheism. That is, God is only one. He has no partner, no equal. He is eternal and beyond time and space. He alone is the Creator and Sustainer of all things. (2:255)

So far as the concept of three God or trinity is concerned, it is a highly illogical concept from every respect. It is not proved by any revealed source. Even today it is merely a creed of Christian Church. Old Testament, New Testament, held sacred by Christians, nowhere clearly mentions the concept of trinity. In their own sacred scriptures trinity is an alien creed.

Afterwards, so far as reason is concerned, the concept of trinity is not rationally understandable. According to the concept of Trinity, God is at the same time three in one and one in three. This is an inconceivable mathematical riddle, which none of the greatest of mathematicians can solve. That is why once when a Christian professor of an Indian university was asked by a student to explain Trinity he had this to say: If you ask me I do not know if you do not ask me I know.

The truth is that the concept of trinity is wholly an unproved concept so far religious scriptures are concerned. As well as it is wholly baseless from the criterion of knowledge and reason Keeping this reality in view, it will not be wrong to say that this concept is so baseless that prima facie it stands rejected.

Now let us talk of scientific knowledge. Scientific knowledge is academic verification of this concept of one God. Scientific knowledge affirms that God cannot be more than one, the concept of many gods is not understandable to a scientist.

The world discovered by science is a wholly unified world. All the parts of the present world are so interlinked with each other that it is impossible to separate them from one another. In such a world the concept of more than one God is quite alien For instance, if sun, air, water, human beings, earth had not been governed by one and the same creator, the world of the present kind would never have come into existence. For instance, if the rays of the sun reach the earth unhampered without there being the atmosphere to send the rays down in balanced form the sun would have become a source of death instead of being a source of life. If the proportion of the gases in water were not in the present form the very survival of all living organism would never been possible on the earth. If the size of the earth were half or double the present size, in either case the civilization on earth would have been well nigh impossible.
There are countless things in the world. But everything is in its best proportion, beneficial for life on earth. None of the things on this earth are out of proportion. This shows that there is only one God-the Creator and Sustainer of this world. If there were different gods for different things, then, the existing perfect proportion could never have been possible. In ancient times people believed that there are numerous forces controlling the universe. From Newton these forces were reduced to the following four forces: gravitational force, electromagnetic force, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force.

However, the extraordinary unity the scientist found in the world was incompatible with the notion that it is being controlled by four forces.

That is why the scientists had been trying to reduce the four forces to one. Their efforts have been crowned with success in the 2nd half of the twentieth century. It has now been generally believed that there can not be four forces controlling nature, that there is only one force which is controlling it. This single force has been termed Single String Theory by the scientists.

This goes to prove that the concept called tawheed (oneness of God) in revealed knowledge is fully borne out by scientific knowledge as well-that there is only one God, not many gods controlling this world.
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