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Syed Tufail Ahmad Manglori

Syed Tufail Ahmad Manglori (d. 30 March 1946), an alumnus of the MAO College, Aligarh which he had joined in 1879, was more actively engaged with the Duty Society (founded in 1890) of Sahibzada Aftab Ahmad Khan and also with the All India Mohammedan Educational Conference (AIMEC, founded in 1886). He founded the City High School of the Aligarh Muslim University (AMU). He also launched Soodmand, a journal to encourage trading habits among Muslims. He was a member of the UP Legislative Council when he wrote a popular book on self-government (Swaraj).

In 1937, Tufail Manglori published  Musalmanon Ka Raushan Mustaqbil, a religious, economic, educational and political history of India’s Muslims roughly since 18th century. This book became so popular that by December 1945 it brought out its fifth edition, with major additions. The fifth edition became more well-known because of its sharp opposition of the Muslim League’s separatist politics. Ali Ashraf could find a reprint of the fifth edition in mid 1980s in Islamabad, got a fund sanctioned by the ICHR (New Delhi) and rendered it into English, with substantial help from Prof. Iqtidar Alam Khan, Dept. of History, AMU. The People’s Publishing House, Delhi, published the English translation in 1994 (Towards a Common Destiny: A Nationalist Manifesto). Manglori’s outlook is “coloured by deep religiosity… uncompromising anti-imperialism, secularism and nationalism’. “Tufail Ahmad based his opposition [to the idea of Pakistan] on more secular arguments-Indian Muslims’ interests being an integral part of the interests of the whole nation and wholesale transfer of populations not being in the realm of practicability, the creation of Pakistan would leave the problem of Muslims in the remaining part of the country where it was and make it even worse…Concerning the circumstances which helped and paved the way for the demand for Pakistan, Tufail Ahmad, too, like Abul Kalam Azad, attaches importance to the Congress refusal to form coalition government with the Muslim League in the UP in 1937, and to Jawaharlal Nehru’s statement regarding the absolute sovereign rights of the proposed Constituent Assembly; thus nullifying the agreement with the Muslim League on the Cabinet Mission Plan”.   

However, Manglori also published another book, Rooh-e-Raushan Mustaqbil, in January 1946. This was probably published by the Jamiat-ul-Ulema-e-Hind, and distributed by the Nizami Book Agency, Badaun.

The most significant aspect of the Rooh-e-Raushan Mustaqbil is Manglori’s comprehensively well-argued critique of the idea of Pakistan (pp. 160-188). Interestingly, this particular portion stands translated by Ali Ashraf (pp. 371-91) claiming it to be a part of the 1945 edition of the “Musalmanon Ka Raushan Mustaqbil”. This section on the critique of Pakistan has sub-headings like: ‘Historical background’; ‘Pakistan as big hurdle’; ‘How were Muslim majority areas turned into Muslim minority provinces’ [in the Lucknow Pact, 1916, by Jinnah]; Nature of Pakistan; Economic Aspect of Proposed Pakistan; Educational Aspect of Pakistan; Pakistan as an Islamic Province; Transfer of Population; Pakistan from the viewpoint of Central Government; Resemblances in the views of Agha Khan and Jinnah regarding Pakistan; Prospect after the formation of Pakistan; and Prescription and Treatment. A similar critique was offered by a Jamiat Ulama cleric, Maulana Hifzur Rahman Seohaarwi (d. 1962), in his Tehreek-e-Pakistan Par Ek Nazar, published probably in 1945 by Jamiat Ulama. Seohaarwi was publishing such contents in the “Madina”, Bijnore. The lead in bringing out sharp critiques of the idea of Pakistan was, however, taken by Maulana Sajjad (1880-1940) as early as December1938 to April 1940, through his columns in “Naqeeb” Urdu weekly of the Imarat-e-Shariah (Patna). Maulana Sajjad was the founder of the Jamiat Ulama-e Bihar (1917), also called Anjuman-e Ulama-e Bihar. (Mohammad Sajjad, AMU - excerpted from a posting on worldofaligs yahoogroup)