Analysis

Industrial Development in Sultanat-e Khudadad

Gun powder produced in the sultanate was fine and of good quality. The famous rockets produced in the sultanate are still a wonder and source of pride for India. The present missile technology is a modified form of the rockets developed by Tipu Sultan. Some of these rockets, captured by the British are kept in the Greenwich museum near London. Former president Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam is a great admirer of Tipu’s rockets.
By Mohammad Yusoof

Though there is no need to recount contributions of Muslims, some landmarks and achievements of the Sultanat-e Khudadad are mentioned here for a glimpse of that kingdom and its founders.

Tipu Sultan called his state  Sultanat-e Khudadad (God-Given State). The supreme power vested with the sultan but he was bound by the Shari’ah. Under his rule, Muslims were governed by Shari’ah while  Hindus were governed by their own customary laws. The Sultan never interfered with them. There was complete freedom of worship in his state. The traditional system of Panchayat was respected and honored by the Sultan.

Tipu Sultan’s rocket

Tipu Sultan was the first Indian sovereign who adopted western administration methods. The administration of Tipu Sultan state was divided into seven principal departments called cutchehries. All the cutchehries were headed by diwan, sahib diwan, huzur sahib or mir diwan. The head of cutchehries was the most important officer in the government. The cutchehries were as follows:


1. Mir Asaf Cutchehry (The Revenue and Finance Department)
2. Mir Miran Cutchehry (The Military Department)
3. Mir Miran Cutchehry 2 (Zumra, Special Army composed by people of Mysore)    
4. Mir Sudur Cutchehry (The Ordnance and Garrison Department)
5. Malik-ut-Tujjar Cutchehry (The Commerce Department)
6. Mir Yam Cutchehry (The Marine Department)
7. Mir Khazan Cutchehry (The Treasury and Mint Department)
Besides these seven departments, some special departments were also established for special tasks and were  headed by Daroghas, like: Tosha Khana. All the valuables were kept in tosha khana. The tosha khana was further divided into naqdi and jinsi. Tosha Khana naqdi kept cash and coins while Tosha Khana jinsi kept valuable stones, ornaments and cloths etc. Industrial Development
Most of the Indian rulers were not interested in promotion of trade and industry. But Tipu Sultan took great interest in promotion of trade and commerce of his kingdom. If he was not encircled by his enemies, he would have ushered the industrial revolution in India.

Industrial development in the kingdom of Tipu Sultan may be divided into the following categories: Trade, Production, Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Mining, Metallurgy, Armoury

The Sultan had established good relations with foreign countries. He had established factories in foreign countries also. He exported saffron seeds, silkworm, rock salt nuts, pearls, raisins, sulphur, copper etc from these factories back to India. Similarly, goods manufactured in Mysore were exported to these factories.

Tipu Sultan had established factories in Jeddah, Basra and Aden etc. The Sultan had also established trade relations with China. Armenian merchants were encouraged to settle in Mysore. Armenian merchants were also given permission to import silk and other goods. The Sultan had become the chief merchant of his state. He had established state monopoly of gold ore, tobacco, sandalwood, precious metals, elephants, coconuts and black pepper. Timber was also a monopoly in the state.


Industrial Development
Tipu had great interest in developing industry in his kingdom. He had secured the services of French artisans and technicians. He had also employed French adventurers, English deserters and prisoners of war for the purpose. Agricultural production too was quite developed in his sultanate. The Sultan had imported various new plants for plantation in his state.

Agriculture
Sugar of fine quality was produced at Chennapatna during the sultanate period. The process was kept secret. Sugar candy of very superior quality was produced at Chickballapur also. This sugar was white and fine. Special kind of sugarcane was produced in the sultanate. For this purpose, Lal Bagh was established for research in agriculture. There were two such centres -- one at Mysore and the other at Bangalore. Apple, jaiphal, coffee etc were produced in these research centres. As a result of these pioneering efforts, Mysore is now an exporter of coffee, jayphal and black pepper.

Animal husbandry
Mysore breed of buffalo is still known in India. The Sultan was interested in high quality cattles. The buffalo breed was prepared in Mysore. The Sultan had also unsuccessfully tried to secure good breed of horses.

The sultan developed Amrit Mahal which provided the dairy needs for the sultanate.

Mining: Gold ore and copper ore were mined in the sultanate. These  were processed inside the sultanate and exported too. The process of extraction was developed in the sultanate. Iron was also extracted from the ore.


Metallurgy
Tipu established various types of industries at Seringapatam, Chaitaldurg, Bangalore and Bednur. He employed European and Indian workmen. The main products of the sultanate were scissors, hourglass, pocket knives, guns, paper, watches and cutlery.

With the help of a French expert, a water-operated boring machine was produced which was used for boring cannons. The produced cannons were much better than the English ones.


Armoury
Tipu encouraged battle arms produced in his sultanate. Field guns were generally cast in Mysore. These guns had longer range than those owned by the English. Cannons were made by the Government Metal Factory. The quality of these cannons was better than others.

Gun powder produced in the sultanate was fine and of good quality. The famous rockets produced in the sultanate are still a wonder and souirce of pride for India. The present missile technology is a modified form of the rockets developed by Tipu Sultan. Some of these rockets, captured by the British are kept in the Greenwich museum near London. Former president Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam is a great admirer of Tipu’s rockets.

Tipu Sultan had a spirit of innovation. He had prepared armory in his state. The armory built by the sultan was far better than that owned by the British. Agriculture too was good in his sultanate. Many new products had been introduced by him.
Alas these contributions of a great ruler and freedom-fighter have been forgotten by his people.


References:
Mahmud Khan Banglori (1939), Sultanat-e-Khudad (Mysore), Matba Barqi, Kausar Press, Maskar, Banglore.
B.Lewis Rice (1896),  A Gazetteer Compiled For Government, Archibald Constable and Company, London.  
Mohibbul Hasan Khan (1951), History of Tipu Sultan, The Bibliophile Ltd., Calcutta.
http://archive.org/details/mysoregazetteerv035381mbp
The author teaches at the Institute of Advanced Studies in Education, Jamia Millia Islamia